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What is skin hyper pigmentation?

Hyper pigmentation is due to excessive melanin deposition. Melanin is a pigment that gives skin and hair its colour and is produced by skin in response to exposure to sunlight.

What are the causes of hyper pigmentation?

Hyper pigmentation can be caused by excessive sun exposure (tanning) or it could be post inflammatory like post acne marks, post burn marks a due to any other injury.Other common causes are birthmarks, freckles, melasma etc.

What are Freckles?

Freckles are light brown spots seen most commonly on face but may appear on any area exposed to sun. Freckles are more common in fair complexioned population and become more darker on repeated sun exposure.

What are the treatment options for Freckles?

Chemical peels like Glycolic, TCA and yellow peels are helpful in lightening of freckles. Other advanced technologies which can be used are IPL, Q-Switch ND-Yag laser. Regular usage of sunscreen goes a long way in preventing recurrence of freckles.

How to prevent skin hyper pigmentation?

Hyper pigmentation can be avoided to some extent by limiting sun exposure. Avoid being outside between 11 am to 3 pm, sun rays are the most damaging during this time. Use sunscreen with minimum SPF 30 every 4 to 6 hourly and every 2 hourly if swimming. Wear sun protective clothing, hat & sun glasses.

What is Melasma?

Melasma is a common skin disorder which appears as brown to dark brown patches on cheeks, bridge of the nose, forehead. It is more commonly but not exclusively seen in women especially during pregnancy. Sun exposure, OCPs, thyroid disorders are some triggers.

What are the treatment options for Melasma?

Combination therapies works best in treating melasma. Sunscreen plays an important role in not only treating melasma but also prevent its recurrence. Depigmentation creams containing kojic Acid, hydroquinone, retinoids forms an essential adjuvant therapy in treatment of melasma. Peels varying in strength and depth like Glycolic, TCA, phenol forms the mainstay of treatment. Other technologies available for treatment of melasma are IPL, Q switched Nd Yag laser with unpredictable results.